Sheikh Idris Watts
Before the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) came to Madīnah, he would fast the tenth of this month as the people of Makkah would do. Then when the Muslims settled in Madīnah, he ordered the people to fast it. He commanded one of the Muslims to announce before the people: “If one of you has eaten this morning, refrain from eating for the rest of the day, and whoever has not eaten, fast this day for this is the 10th of Muharram.” The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) then sent someone to the Helpers who resided on the outskirts of the city to tell them to do the same. The Muslims would prevent their infants from eating as well and when they went to the mosque they would make their children a toy made from wool and whenever they cried out of hunger they would give it to them. However, a year after the emigration, Ramadān was prescribed for the community so he told the people it was no longer an obligation, but he still fasted it. Ibn Abbās said that he never saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) fast a day, seeking out its virtue over other days quite like this day (10th Muharram) and this month (Ramadān). He also encouraged the Muslims to continue fasting it. He said:
من شاء فليصمه و من شاء أفطر
“Whoever wants, fast it and whoever wants, may eat.”
He knew that it was a blessed day; however, whilst he was in Madīnah, he also found that the Jewish community of Khaybar would fast it too. They would celebrate it and give gifts of jewellery and new clothes to their wives. When he asked them why, they said, “This was the day that Moses (peace be upon him) and the Children of Israel were victorious over Pharaoh, so Moses (peace be upon him) fasted it out of thanks and we fast it out of veneration for it.” The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) replied, “We have more right to Moses than you,” and so he reminded the people to keep fasting this day. Then in the last year after the conquering of Makkah he ordered the Muslims to differ with the Jews by fasting either a day before it or after.
يوم عاشوراء كانت تصومه الأنبياء فصوموه أنتم
“The 10th of Muharram was a day that the Prophets fasted so you fast it too.”
صيام يوم عاشوراء إني أحتسب على الله أن يكفر السنة التي قبله
“I believe that Allah will atone the previous year (for fasting the 10th).”
صوم عاشوراء يكفر سنة و صوم عرفة يكفر سنتين
“Fasting the 10th of Muharram atones a year (of sin) and fasting the 9th of Dhū al-Hijjah atones 2 years.”
صوموا يوم عاشوراء خالفوا اليهود صوموا يوما قبله أو يوما بعده
“Fast the 10th and oppose the Jews by fasting a day before it or after it.”
أفضل الصيام بعد رمضان شهر الله المحرم
“The most virtuous of fasts after Ramadān is the month of Allah, Muharram.”
إن كنت صائما شهرا بعد رمضان فصم المحرم فإن فيه يوما تاب الله على قوم و يتوب فيه على آخرين
“If you are going to fast a month after Ramadān, then fast Muharram for therein is a day in which Allāh accepted the repentance of a people and therein He accepts the repentance of others.”
Moulay Abd al-Qādir al-Jilānī says in his book al-Ghunyah:
It is called the Tenth because it is the tenth of the month or because it is the tenth gift that God honoured this community with which is a means for atonement and purification:
- Rajab: This is the month of God as a gift to this community to signify their virtue over all other communities before.
- Shabān: This month has as much virtue as the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) has over all the others prophets.
- Ramadān: This month has as much virtue over the other months as God has over his creation.
- The Night of Decree: This night is greater than a thousand months.
- The 1st of Shawwāl: The Day of Reward.
- The first ten days of Dhū al-Hijjah: The days of invoking God.
- The Day of Arafah: Fasting this day is atonement for two years of sin.
- The Day of Sacrifice (10th of Dhū al-Hijjah): This day is the time of drawing closer to God.
- Friday: This day is greater than all the other days of the week.
- The Tenth of Muharram: fasting this day is atonement for a year’s worth of sin.
Some said that it is called the Tenth because ten prophets were honoured on this day:
- God accepted Adam’s (peace be upon him) repentance.
- Enoch (peace be upon him) was taken up to the heavens.
- Noah (peace be upon him) landed the Ark on the Mount Jūdī.
- Abraham (peace be upon him) was born, he was taken as a close companion of God, and he was delivered from the heat of the fire.
- David (peace be upon him) was forgiven.
- Solomon (peace be upon him) was granted his kingdom.
- Job (peace be upon him) was healed from his ailment.
- Moses (peace be upon him) was delivered at the sea and Pharaoh was drowned.
- Jonah (peace be upon him) was delivered from the whale.
- Jesus (peace be upon him) was taken up to the heavens.
- Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace) was born.
Events said to have occurred on the tenth of Muharram:
- God created the Pen.
- God created the Throne.
- God created the footstool.
- God created the Tablet.
- God created the heavens.
- God created the stars.
- God created the earth.
- God created Gabriel (peace be upon him) and the angels.
- God created the mountains.
- God created the oceans.
- God raised over His Throne.
- The first rains fell.
- The first mercy descended.
- God created Adam (peace be upon him).
- God placed Adam (peace be upon him) in the Garden.
- Adam (peace be upon him) descended to the earth.
- Enoch (peace be upon him) was taken up to the heavens.
- The day the Ark settled on al-Jūdī.
- Abraham (peace be upon him) was born.
- God delivered Abraham (peace be upon him) from the fire.
- God ransomed Ishmael (peace be upon him) with the ram.
- It was these ten days that God complete forty days for Moses (peace be upon him).
- It was the day when Moses (peace be upon him) confronted the sorcerers which was a festive occasion for the people of Pharaoh then.
- God drowned Pharaoh.
- God healed Job (peace be upon him) from his ailment.
- Joseph (peace be upon him) was delivered from the well.
- God forgave David (peace be upon him).
- Solomon (peace be upon him) was bestowed his kingdom.
- Jesus (peace be upon him) was born.
- Jesus (peace be upon him) was taken up to the heavens.
- The Quraysh used to clothe the Kabah.
- The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) was delivered from the tribulation of his people
- The Day of Resurrection will be on this day.
- Al-Husayn (peace be upon him) was martyred on this day.
Pious acts encouraged on this day:
- Whoever takes a ritual bath on this day will not fall ill unless it is a fatal illness.
- Whoever puts kohl in his eyes on this day, his eyes will never become inflamed throughout the whole of the year.
من اكتحل بالأثمد يوم عاشوراء لم يرمد أبدا
“Whoever uses kohl on the 10th of Muharram, his eyes will never inflame.”
Ibn Ābidīn says, quoting Ibn al-Izz:
“Once the Rawāfid had innovated in the religion by holding mourning processions and manifesting sorrow on the 10th due to it being the day al-Husayn was killed, the ignorant from the Sunni community began to manifest joy and take seeds and food and wear kohl in their eyes on that day, relating fabricated traditions in regard to it and traditions about spending on the family.”
Ibn Ābidīn remarks:
“This (what Ibn al-Izz says) is baseless because the traditions relating the virtue of using kohl are weak, not fabricated.”
- Whoever visits the sick on this day it is as if he has visited all the children of Adam (peace be upon him).
- Whoever quenches someone’s thirst on that day it will be as if he has never committed sin.
- Whoever prays four cycles of prayer on this day and recites in each cycle Chapter Fātiha and Chapter Ikhlās fifty times, fifty years of sins will be forgiven of whatever committed previously and fifty years into the future, and God will build for him a thousand palaces of light in the Garden.
- One should show extra kindness to one’s family by buying them foods or clothes.
من وسع على أهله في يوم عاشوراء وسع الله عليه سائر سنته
“Whoever is extra generous to his family on the tenth of Muharram, God will be extra generous to him.”
- Whoever fasts in this day it will be atonement for forty years of sin.
- Whoever spends the night awake in prayer and fasts the day he will be granted long life.
- Whoever gives charity on this day it will be as if he has given charity throughout the whole year.
من صام عاشوراء فكأنما صام السنة و من تصدق فيه كصدقة السنة
“Whoever fast the 10th of Muharram, it is as if he has fasted the whole year and whoever give charity therein it is like giving charity for the whole year.”
- Whoever fasts the last day of Dhu al-Hijjah and the first day of Muharram will have fifty years worth of sin atoned for.
- It is a good thing to make these supplications on this day:
﴿رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنْفُسَنَا وَ إِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَ تَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخٰسِرِينَ﴾
“Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves, and if You do not forgive us and have mercy upon us, we will surely be among the losers.”
﴿ وَ إِلَّا تَغْفِرْ لِي وَ تَرْحَمْنِي أَكُنْ مِّنَ الْخٰسِرِينَ﴾
“My Lord, I seek refuge in You from asking that of which I have no knowledge. And unless You forgive me and have mercy upon me, I will be among the losers.”
﴿رَبِّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي فَاغْفِرْ لِي﴾
“He said, ‘My Lord, indeed I have wronged myself, so forgive me,’ and He forgave him. Indeed, He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.”
﴿لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ سُبْحَٰنَكَ إِنِّي كُنْتُ مِنَ الظّٰلِمِينَ﴾
“There is no deity except You; exalted are You. Indeed, I have been of the wrongdoers.”
اللهم أنت ربي لا إله إلا أنت ظلمت نفسي و اعترفت بذنبي فاغفر لي إنه لا يغفر الذنوب إلا أنت
“O Allah, You are my Lord; there is no deity but You! I have wronged myself and I acknowledge my sin so forgive me for no-one forgives sins except you.”
اللهم إني ظلمت نفسي ظلما كثيرا و لا يغفر الذنوب إلا أنت فاغفر لي مغفرة من عندك و ارحمني إنك أنت الغفور الرحيم
“O Allah, I have wronged myself much and only You forgive sins so You forgive me specially and show me mercy. Indeed, You are the most forgiving and merciful.”
اللهم أنت ربي لا إله إلا أنت خلقتني و أنا عبدك و أنا على عهدك و وعدك ما استطعت أعوذ بك من شر ما صنعت و أبوء بذنبي فاغفر لي إنه لا يغفر الذنوب إلا أنت
“O Allah, You are my Lord; there is no deity but You! You created me and I am your slave. I am upon your covenant and promise as long as I am able. I seek refuge in You from the evil I have done and I acknowledge my sins so forgive me for no-one forgives sins except you.”
One should fast the ninth or the eleventh with the tenth and some have said you should fast all 3 days.
Mentioning the martyrdom of Imām Al-Husayn:
Ahmad an-Nūrī (d. 1906):
Here in India, in the month of Muharram, the Muslims give condolences in the remembrance of Imām al-Husayn (peace be upon him). This is forbidden in Islam. Some people mourn for 10 days while others mourn for 40 days in this month. During this period, they postpone weddings and happy occasions. This is a reprehensible innovation introduced by the Shiites and it is forbidden.
During these days the Sunni community is advised to give charity, keep fast and recite the Qurān and prayers on the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), and then offer it to the blessed soul of Imām al-Hasan, Imām al-Husayn and the martyrs (peace be upon them all). The Divine Law recommends such acts. It is also permissible for the Sunni Muslims to hold gatherings in honour of the martyrs and lecture to the people about their sufferings and sacrifices on the battlefields while defending Islam. The events of Karbala are examples and lessons for the people and the martyrdom of Imām al-Husayn (peace be upon him) is a beacon of guidance. There is no harm in shedding tears and expressing sorrow on the great sacrifices of the Noble Imām. It is an innovation and forbidden in these days to beat the chest or cry out loudly, scratch or cut the face and body, to abstain from cutting hair, nails, bathing and changing clothes, breaking bangles on woman’s hands, and wearing black and green clothing. These are evil practices of the Shiites. A true Sunni Muslim does not conform or imitate any corrupt sect. The Prophetic Tradition has warned:
من تشبه بقوم فهو منهم
“Whoever imitates is among them.”
“Observe the anniversary of Imām al-Husayn’s (peace be upon him) martyrdom on the eve and day of the 10th of Muharram. This has been a regular practice of the Scholars, men of God and the righteous. Observe it as they did by staying awake the whole night in worship, reciting the Holy Qurān, prophetic traditions, invoking God and sending prayers on the Holy Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). Offer the rewards of this worship to the souls of the martyrs and acquire spiritual benefits from the sacred soul of Imām al-Husayn (peace be upon him). This means that one is to communicate with his sacred soul. This procedure is as follows: One is to close one’s eyes and visualize that via the mediation of the al-Murshid al-Kāmil, one’s heart is connected with the sacred soul of Imām al-Husayn (peace be upon him). The heart is now receiving spiritual benefit that raises one spiritually towards lofty stations. Try to spend the night engrossed in this meditation. Feed the poor and destitute on the morning of the 10th, as this was the practice of the Men of God (Sufis). With the blessings of this one will attain progress and peace for the whole year.
One must not indulge in innovation on this night such as giving condolences and mourning, dancing, fire walking, drum beating and other undesirable acts. These are all innovations that are not substantiated by the Divine Law. These acts invite the wrath of God and distress the soul of Imām al-Husayn (peace be upon him). It is obvious that these practices will annoy the Imām’s grandfather, the Messenger of God (Allah bless him and give him peace). Why not then engage in acts that please them and earn the mercy of almighty God rather than vice-versa? These moments are for accumulating and earning mercies and bounties and not curses and displeasure. May All-Mighty God guide and protect us from all malpractices. Amen.
“My Spiritual Guide and my grandfather forbade people in the month of Muharram from the evil practices of the Shiite, that is, mourning and reading Marthiyah… He said, “Once I mentioned to my Spiritual Guide, Shā Ālī Ahmad al-Husaynī al-Qādirī (d.1820), about the practice of my beloved teacher Abd al-Azīz ad-Dehlawī (d. 1826). In the month of Muharram, he lectured on the excellence of Imām al-Hasan and al-Husayn. These lectures continued for 10 days and on the 10th day from the morning till the zenith he lectured on his martyrdom. Thereafter, he distributed food to those present. He replied, ‘This is a good practice. But if I had met him, I would have told him that his practice was not advisable on these days. Only the Fātiha should be read for the martyrs and a little food distributed. Lectures and public feeding should be done in other months so that these functions may not have any similarity to the Rawāfid and the Shiite. Elaborate arrangements and activities open the doors for misconception in the future generations. They may assume that their elders of the past were Rawāfid and Shiite who practiced Taqiyah. These days, there are two groups amongst the Muslims – Sunnī and Shiite who do not reject the esteemed station and martyrdom of Imām al-Husayn and al al-Hasan. Therefore in these times, there is no necessity for the Sunnis to hold such functions. This will clearly differentiate between the Sunnis and the Shiites. On the contrary, it is necessary to hold such functions if there are any Kharijites around. They reject the excellence and the martyrdom of both Imām al-Husayn and al-Hasan, but there are no Kharijites here. Therefore, the Sunnis must not practice any familiarity to the Rawāfid and the Shiite.’
I personally heard this issue from my Spiritual Guide. I immediately exercised great caution from the moment I heard this from my teacher. Since these innovations have greatly increased in the month of Muharram, I have mentioned this for the benefit of my Muslim brothers. May God grant us success to put it into practice! Amen.
Imām Ahmad Razā Khan says in his Fatāwā ar-Rizwiyyah:
Zayd said that a meeting will be held after the Friday prayer to commemorate the martyrs of Karbalā. Amr announced this after the Friday prayer. Zayd began narrating the virtues of martyrdom and of the Karbalā martyrs. he then began grieving for them and recounting the [sad] events such as the women of Prophet’s (Allah bless him and give him peace) Family being paraded bare-headed on camels and their imprisonment; of the vile Yazīd mocking at the head of Husayn (peace be upon him) and other such authentic reports from the reliable books of Ahl as-Sunnah. This caused the assembled folk to break down and wail.
Is such a thing permissible for both the narrator and the listeners? Will they receive any reward for it? The assembly is not similar to that of Rawāfi, since this doesn’t have flags and other props (taziyah) used by them.
After the meeting, sweets, juice and tea were served and Fātiha recited; its reward was gifted to the souls of the Karbalā martyrs. Are these things permissible or not?
Describing the high ranks of the Prophet’s (Allah bless him and give him peace) Family by narrating authentic reports is undoubtedly meritorious and deserves a great reward, so also are the narrations of the martyrdom (of al-Husayn, peace be upon him) when the intention is to highlight their patience and steadfastness (in such adversity).
However, the Sacred Law doesn’t permit us to foment anguish or perpetuate grief; neither does it allow ululation (maātim) or mourning; nor should such words be said which may be insulting to the Prophet’s (Allah bless him and give him peace) Family (for example while describing the travails of the women).
Both the birth and passing away of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) is in the month of Rabī al-Awwal, but the scholars and Imāms of this religion made it a month of celebration, not one of mourning.
And Allah most High knows best.
What is the ruling of Islamic scholars concerning the following:
1. Is it right and permissible for Sunnis to narrate the events of Karbalā in the manner of the Rāwāfid (and purposefully) not mentioning the four rightful and guided Caliphs and other Companions (peace be upon them all), those who perished in Karbalā, nor to mention Abū Bakr, Umar and Uthmān (peace be upon them all), the sons of Alī (peace be upon him), because they are named after the three Caliphs?
The best of all remembrance is the remembrance of Allah; and best of such remembrance is Prayer. yet, even Prayer is not permissible and forbidden if performed in the manner of the Rāwāfid. The gatherings of Muharram and the narration of the events of Karbalā – as is prevalent among the general populace – which rekindles grief and causes moaning and wailing, and such reports which are blatant lies and forgeries – which are in itself forbidden – is (certainly) forbidden.
It is in ‘as-Sawāyiq al-Muriqah wa mā thubita bi as-Sunnah’:
“Beware! Beware! Do not indulge in the innovations of the Rāwāfid of mourning and grieving and wailing – these are not the virtues of a believer.”
Yes, the narration of authentic reports and in a permissible manner extolling the virtues and praising the high rank of our Master Imām al-Husayn (peace be upon him), the perfume of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) is certainly light for the eyes, and clear light itself. However, to stop only at that, and not to mention the four rightly guided Caliphs (peace be upon them all), particularly in places like Lucknow which is the Indian Kūfā, is certainly worthy of censure and is necessary to abstain from.
The first type of gathering the Defender of the Faith Muhammad al-Ghazālī, may Allah sanctify his secret, says: “It is forbidden for the preacher to narrate (forged) events of the martyrdom of Husayn (peace be upon him).”
Imām ibn Hajar al-Makkī says in as-Sawāyiq al-Muriqah:
“The ruling that it is forbidden to narrate events of Husayn’s (peace be upon him) martyrdom doesn’t apply here in this book when I have mentioned the same because it is the truth and it is necessary to believe it; since it extols the importance of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, and exonerates them from slander. This is opposed to the ignorant preacher, who narrates falsehoods and forgeries and doesn’t clarify the truthful ones which are necessary to believe. This causes the public to undermine or suspect certain Companions.”
The second type (which is permissible) is that which according to Kitāb al-Awn and the commentary of an-Nuqāyah at the end of the discussion of disliked actions:
“If one wishes to narrate the events of Husayn’s (peace be upon him) martyrdom, it is necessary that he recount the martyrdom of other companions, so as to oppose the manner of the Rāwāfdi. This is because they are content with the martyrdom of Husayn (peace be upon him), whereas the Ahl as-Sunnah reveres both the Companions and the Prophet’s (Allah bless him and give him peace) Family.”
The Mother of Believers our Lady Āishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: “You should mention Umar when you talk of the righteous.” As for not mentioning Abū Bakr, Umar or Uthmān just because they are named after the three Caliphs is open heresy, the trait of the Rāwāfid, and following the illusions of the Rāwāfid – may Allah disgrace them – of this age. These names are pure, ﴾Allah assail them! How they are perverted!﴿”
There is a sect called Bey-Pīrey and they do not call Monday by its other name ; nor do they make three doors for their mosques since it is the number of the first three Caliphs (peace be upon them all). It is such silly superstitions that prompted Imām Shafi’ī to remark: “The Shiites are old wives of this nation (i.e. they tell false tales).”
And Allah most High knows best.
Alā ad-Dīn Ābidīn says in his book al-Hadiyyah al-Alāiyyah:
“It is not permissible to make mention of the martyrdom of Imām Husayn in the first ten days of Muharram. Such an act is the practice of the Rawāfid. If one wishes to make mention of it he should mention the martyrdom of the other Companions (first) and then proceed to talk about the martyrdom of both Hasan and Husayn, may Allah be pleased with them both, but their martyrdom should not be the intended topic, rather mentioning them after the others. In this case, there is no harm in mentioning them. As for the story teller tearing his clothes on mentioning the martyrdom of Husayn out of regret for the calamity and ordering the people to stand, the people of religious authority must prevent them and those in the audience are not excused in regard to that matter.”
Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalī said:
“As for taking this day as a time of mourning as the Rawāfid do for the sake of the martyrdom of al-Husayn b. Alī on this day, this is from the acts of those ﴾whose efforts in this world are misguided, even when they think they are doing good﴿. Neither Allah nor His Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) commanded us to take any day of calamity for the prophets or their deaths as a time of lament, so what about those who are not of their status?!!”
 A tradition related by Muslim in the chapter entitled ‘Ṣawm Yawm ʿĀshūrāʾ’ (Fasting the Tenth of Muḥarram)
 A tradition of Salamah b. al-Akwaʿ related Bukhārī
 A tradition of ar-Rabīʿ related by Bukhārī
 A tradition related by Bukhārī and Muslim
 Some held the opinion that it was no longer encouraged after Ramaḍān was decreed the month of fasting and so ʿAbdullah b. ʿUmar would not fast it unless it fell on a day he would usually fast.
 A tradition related by Bukhārī and Muslim
 It is related that he used to wear linen on the day and wear kohl in his eyes.
 Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī said, in his commentary of Bukhārī on these traditions, that the Messenger of Allah liked to adopt the practice of the Jews and Christians in matters in which he had not been commanded to carry out, especially if it went against the practice of the idolaters. However, once Makkah was conquered and Islam had become well known, he loved to oppose their practice as well as is established in rigorously authenticated tradition. And this is the case here, he adopted their practice initially and said ‘We have more right to Moses than you do’, and then later on he commanded the people to fast an additional day alongside the 10th either before or after in order to differ with them…Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī then says, “As for Quraysh fasting this day, perhaps it was due to what they had inherited from a previously sacred law and that was why they used to honour it by clothing the Kaʿbah therein and other matters.” It was also said in pre-Islamic times, they committed a sin which they felt remorse for and they were told to fast the 10th of Muḥarram for atonement.
 A tradition related by Baqī b. Makhlad in his Musnad
 A tradition of Abū Qatādah related by Muslim
 A tradition of Abū Qatādah related by Muslim: It is said that it atones a year because it is from the Sacred Law of Moses u where as the 9th of ʿArafah is from the Sacred Law of Muḥammad r.
 A weak tradition of Ibn ʿAbbās related by Aḥmad: some where of the opinion that he fasted a day before it and after it, fearing that they may have not caught 10th. This was something he did on occasions whilst travelling.
 A tradition of Abū Hurayrah related by Muslim
 A weak tradition of ʿAlī related by Tirmidhī
 Many of these accounts are questionable. Ibn Ḥajar al-Makkī says in his al-Ḥawādith al-Ḥadīthiyyah: “Also be wary of believing in what is written in al-Ghunyah of the Imām of the Gnostics and Spiritual Axis of Islam and the Muslims ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī because someone, with whom Allah will take him to task, has fabricated things against him in the book of which he is innocent (ascribing anthropomorphic traits to Allah Exalted). How can such a ridiculous matter be circulated about him when he is one who is proficiently grounded, not only in the Book (Qurʾān) and the Sunnah, but in both the Shāfiʿī and Ḥanbalī Schools of Jurisprudence to the point where he would give legal opinion from both of these Schools?!!!…”
 This was mentioned by ʿIkramah who relates it from Ibn ʿAbbās according to Ibn Rajab.
 A tradition of Abū Hurayrah related by Aḥmad: Abū Qatādah relates that Noah u boarded the Ark in the 20th Rajab and left the Ark on the 10th of Muḥarram.
 Ibn Rajab relates that Wahb said that Moses u ordered the Children of Israel to turn in repentance in the first 10 days of Muḥarram and to go outside on the 10th and Allah will forgive them.
 It was mentioned by Ibn Ḥabīb and Ibn Rajab mentions a tradition from ʿAlī that it was the day that Allāh accepted the repentance of his people.
 Ibn Rajab mentions that this was related by ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-Khaffāf from Saʿīd and Qatādah
 A mountain in northern Iraq near the city of Mosul
 As related by Ibn Ḥabīb
 As mentioned by Ibn Ḥabīb
 Umm Salamah relates that al-Ḥusayn came into her house whilst the Prophet r was there and climbed onto his chest played. The Prophet r had a clump of mud in his hand and his tears became to fall. When al-Ḥusayn left Umm Salamah came back into the house and asked, “For your sake over my own father and mother, O Messenger of God, I saw that you had a clump of mud in your hand and you were crying.” The Prophet r replied, “I was overjoyed to have my grandson playing on my chest, but Gabriel u came to me and placed the mud that he will fall upon when he is killed. That is why I cry.”
ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jilānī says that many have erred when they said that we should not celebrate this day because it is a day of mourning. This is a mistake because it is an honour for al-Ḥusayn to have been martyred on this day because it is one of the greatest days of the year. If we were to take a day of mourning, Monday would be more fitting because it is the day the Prophet r, Abū Bakr t passed away. ʿAlī and his son al-Ḥasan ordered people to fast this day.
 Ibn Rajab mentioned that all the traditions related to henna, kohl and bathing are fabricated.
 The various traditions which relate the virtues of putting kohl in the eyes on the 10th are not all fabricated; rather they are weak. The fact that there are a number of different weak traditions relating the virtue or using the kohl shows that it has some basis.
 A tradition related by al-Bayhaqī which Ibn al-Jawzī considered fabricated but in fact it is weak
 However, his son ʿAlāʿ ad-Dīn says that the traditions related to the merits of using henna, bathing and kohl are all fabricated. Thus it is makrūh to do these things on the 10th.
 It is also related that he read Chapter Zilzāl, Kāfirūn, and Ikhlāṣ and then he should send prayers and peace upon the Prophet r seventy times after finishing his prayer.
 A very weak tradition of Abū Saʿīd, related by al-Bayhaqī and aṭ-Ṭabarānī: Jābir and Abū az-Zubayr said that he practiced this for forty years and he found it to always be true. Ibn ʿUyaynah said that he had tested it for 50 or 60 years and he never saw anything but good in it. Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal did not consider it an authentic tradition. Aḥmad Raza Khān relates in his commentary Jidd al-Mumtār on Radd al-Muḥtār that one should act on this even if one is not fasting the day.
 A tradition of ʿAbdullah b. ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ related by Abū Mūsā al-Madīnī
 ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz wrote to the citadels of the Muslims and ordered the people to ask for forgiveness like their father Adam u, Noah u, Moses u, and Jonah u.
 Qurʾān: 7/23
 Qurʾān: 11/47
 Qurʾān: 28/16
 Qurʾān: 21/87
 Sirāj al-ʿAwārif fī al-Waṣāyā wa al-Maʿārif, Aḥmad an-Nūrī, p 229-30
 Sirāj al-ʿAwārif fī al-Waṣāyā wa al-Maʿārif, Aḥmad an-Nūrī p. 234-35
 Sirāj al-ʿAwārif fī al-Waṣāyā wa al-Maʿārif, Aḥmad an-Nūrī p. 242-33
 vol.23 p.738
 Fatāwā ar-Rizwiyyah vol.23 p.738 (note: this is a longer fatwa with two more questions)
 Qurʾān: 9/30
 Monday has two names in Urdu: ‘Pīr’ and ‘Do-shanbah’ (from Persian); ‘Pīr’ has also two meanings: ‘Monday’ and ‘Master’. Bey-pirey literally means ‘No Monday’ or ‘No leader’.
 Al-Hadiyyah al-ʿAlāʾiyyah p. 311
 Qurʾān: 18/104
 Laṭāʾif al-Maʿārif