Rabbi al-Awwal mubarak!
Last year we posted the lineage of the Prophet Muhammad (upon him be peace and blessings), including a short biography of each person; compiled by Shaykh Idris Watts. We thought we would re-post them again for everyone’s benefit as it is obligatory for us to know the lineage.
“One must know his lineage back to ʿAdnān from his father’s side and to Kilāb from his mother’s side as mentioned by Ujhūrī. Qarāfī mentioned that all the matters pertaining to his states fall under tenants of faith and so one must investigate them in order to have complete faith.”
He was nicknamed the Sacrifice and he was known as Abū Qutham which means the Father of Giving or Gathering alluding to good that was gathered in him. He was also known as Abū Muḥammad and Abū Aḥmad. He was also known as the Sacrifice because of the oath his father had made to sacrifice him to God for giving him 10 sons. He passed away in Madīnah when he left Makkah to trade in dates or visit the uncles of his father in the Tribe of ʿAdī b. Najjār. It also said that he set off for Gaza in a caravan of Quraysh and on his way back he fell ill in Madīnah and stayed there for a month and then passed away. His father sent his son Zubayr or al-Ḥārith to find him and he managed to attend his funeral. His passed away at the age of 25. He was buried in an-Nābigha and some said in al-Abwāʾ around 30 miles or so from Madīnah.
It has been related from Ibn Abbās that when ʿAbdullah passed away the angels went to Allah and said, “Our God and Master, Your prophet has been left an orphan with no protector and no one to raise him!” And Allah replied, “And I am his Protector and Aid so send prayers upon him and take blessing through his name.”
Jaʿfar al-Sādiq was once asked why the Prophet was made an orphan. He replied, “So that no-one of creation could claim a right over him.”
Ibn al-ʿAmmād said that the wisdom he was made an orphan was in order to show the people that people do not reach high stations except by the grace of Allah and not through the glory of their forefathers or mothers. Also, it was so that people would honour and have respect for orphans.
ارحموا اليتامى و أكرموا الغرباء فإني كنت في الصغر يتيما و في الكبر غريبا و إن الله لينظر للغريب كل يوم ألف نظرة
“Have mercy on the orphans and honour the estranged for I was an orphan in my youth and I was estranged as an adult. Verily, Allah gazes upon the estranged a thousand times in the day.”
 It was also said that he was 28 or 30 and some even said 18
 Called so because the waters used to settle there and flood the land or because it was common for malaria to affect the area.
 A tradition mentioned by al-ʿAjalūnī
His name was ‘Shaybah al-Ḥamd’ because he was born with a grey hair in the middle of his hair that hung at the sides of his ears. His parents saw this as a good omen that he would grow up to be a wise man. They added ‘al-Ḥamd’ to his name out of hope that people would give praise to him. Their hope was realised, as he was to become the one who Quraysh turned to in all their matters. It was also related that his name was ‘Āmir, but this is a weak position. He was known as Abū al-Baṭḥā’ or Abū al-Ḥārith. He abstained from wine and he was the first to take refuge in the cave of Ḥirā’. He would ascend the mountain when the month of Ramaḍān entered. He would also feed the poor. He would also feed the birds and wild animals in the mountains and so he was famed for his generosity. The people would call him al-Fayyāḍ (Overpourer of Generosity). He was the first of Makkah to dye his hair black and then they followed him. He was nicknamed ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib because of an event in his childhood. Hashim had had three sons from different wives but none compared to Shaybah in terms of his qualities of leadership, good looks and eloquence that were noted by other people from Makkah when they travelled through Yathrib. His uncle Muṭṭalib was desperate to find someone in the family suitable for taking over the responsibilities of the Clan of Hāshim so he went to see for himself. He was struck by the boy. When he tried to convince Salmā to give him the boy both mother and son refused. However, he managed to convince them that Shaybah would become the chief of Makkah if he was integrated into Makkahn life. He would not be accepted if he remained outside Makkah. However, he brought him back from his mother’s relatives, Banī Najjār, and Shaybah was walking behind him wearing tatty clothes. Everyone in Makkah inquisitively asked who the boy was because of his state. Embarrassed, he said that he was his slave-boy. In another relation, they shouted out that he must be the slave of Muṭṭalib. On hearing this Muṭṭalib reprimanded them and said that he was the son of Hāshim. It is also related that his father Hāshim nicknamed him thus on his deathbed. He told his brother Muṭṭalib, “Go and bring your slave from Yathrib.” He said this out of endearment. He fell into dispute with his uncle Nawfal over estate, but was supported by his uncle and family in Yathrib and secured his rights. He took on the role of feeding and watering the pilgrims. He lived for 140 years.
It is related that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said about him:
يبعث جدي عبد المطلب في زي الملوك و أبهة الأشراف
“My grandfather ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib will be raised in the robes of kings and the splendour of noblemen.”
 Related by Ibn Athīr
 Salmā was the daughter of ‘Amr b. Zabīd who was from the Tribe of ‘Adī b. an-Najjār al-Khazrajī. The Tribe of an-Najjār are maternal uncles of ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib.
 It is said that he was dressed in tatty attire because he had taken him suddenly without informing his mother or his informed her but took him immediately in fear she might change her mind.
 Some said 120
His name was ‘Amr al-‘Ulā because of his high rank amongst the people. Some said that his name was ‘Umar. He was known as Abū al-Baṭḥā’. He was nicknamed Hāshim because in one time of famine, he served the people Tharīd. When they were in times of difficulty, he would travel to Palestine and buy much flour and cake. Then when he arrived in Makkah he would tell the people to prepare bread with it and he would sacrifice camels and make Tharīd for them. He would continue to do so until the people could support themselves again. It is related that the light of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, could be seen in his face and no monk or rabbi would pass by except that they would kiss his hand. The Arab and Jewish tribes would offer their daughters to him and it is related that even Heraclius offered him his daughter after knowing his progeny would carry prophecy from his readings of the Evangel but he refused. The families of Zuhra and Taym gathered around Hāshim and demanded that he take the responsibilities of the city for himself and his family. Makhzum stood by the children of ‘Abd ad-Dar. Hāshim and his brothers were brought a bowl of rich perfume and they dipped their hands into it and rubbed it over the Ka’ba as a symbol of their loyalty to one another. They became known as ‘The Scented Ones’. The ones who bore allegiance to ‘Abd ad-Dar became to be known as ‘The Confederates’. The two sides decided to fight one another but they had to go outside the holy precinct for several miles. Eventually they came to a compromise because each family did not want to kill each other. They decided to share the responsibilities of the city. The sons of ‘Abd al-Manāf would take the responsibility of the levying the tax and providing the pilgrims with food and drink whilst the sons of ‘Abd ad-Dār would retain the keys and other responsibilities alongside the House of Assembly. Hāshim established the caravan journeys from Makkah to Yemen in the winter and Palestine and Syria in the summer. He would go north, his brother ‘Abd ash-Shams would go east to Abyssinia in the winter, his brother Nawfal would go to Persia in the summer and al-Muṭṭalib would go to Yemen in the winter. No other Arab could travel to these places in safety unless they travelled in these brothers’ names. Hāshim married a woman from Yathrib called Salmah from the tribe of Najjār, who would become the people who greeted the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, when he arrived into Madīnah. She told him on marrying her that she stipulated that she wanted all her affairs to remain in her hands and that her son Shaybah remain with her in Yathrib until he be fourteen. Hāshim would stay with her and his sons on the way North with his caravans. Hāshim eventually died in Gaza; Palestine. He was the first of ‘Abd Manāf’s sons to pass away. He passed away at the age of 20 or 25. It is related that Hāshim inherited his father’s wife Wāqidah but she is not from the lineage of the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings be upon him. It is related that both he and ‘Abd ash-Shams were twins and that Hāshim’s toe was stuck to ‘Abd ash-Shams’ forehead in the womb and it was not removed except that it caused blood to flow and so the people said that there would be bad blood between them. In fact, there was rivalry between him and ‘Abd ash-Shams’ son Umayyah for Umayyah was jealous of him and he always competed in doing just as much as Hāshim. The Quraysh began to mock Umayyah for doing so, and so Umayyah called Hāshim forth to compete in the glory over each one’s fetes. They called a seer from the tribe of Khuzā’ah. Hāshim said, “I will compete with you over 50 black eyed camels which will be slaughtered in Makkah and that the loser will be expelled from Makkah for ten years.” Umayyah agreed. Both men went out of Makkah in a troop and hid from sight from the seer and then the seer declared that Hāshim was greater in fetes than Umayyah. Then Hāshim slaughtered the camels and fed the people and Umayyah was forced to live in Shaam for the next 10 years. It is related that his progeny still carried resentment for that so they killed Ḥusayn and the progeny of ‘Abbās in the year 133 IE.
 He was the first to do this after his forefather Abraham, peace be upon him. Some said that Quṣayy used to do this amongst the Quraysh and ‘Amr b. Luḥayy was the first from Khuzā’ah and Hāshim was the first to do it in times of drought.
 Related by Zarqānī
His name was al-Mughīrah. His face resembled the moon and he was known and respected by the Quraysh for his courage against their enemies. Manāh was one of the greatest idols of Makkah. His mother had put him in the service of the idol when he was a boy. Then his father saw that his name was the same as ‘Abd Manāh, the son of Kinānah and so he changed his name to ‘Abd al-Manāf (Loftiness). He owned the banner of Nizār and the bow of Ishmael, peace be upon him. His sons are ‘Abd ash-Shams (‘Uthmān comes from his family and Abū Sufyān b. Ḥarb who are the children of Umayyah), Hāshim, ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib and Nawfal. He passed away in Gaza.
 She wanted him to protect it because of its high cost and not as a worshipper.
His name was Zayd or Yazīd. He was nicknamed Quṣayy because he lived far from his family. He was known as Mujammi’ (the Gatherer). He used to gather the people and tell them to honour the Holy House and that a prophet will be raised amongst them. He was also nicknamed ‘Mujammi’’ because all the tribes of Fihr go through his line. His father died when he was an infant. His mother Fāṭimah daughter of Sa’d ibn Sayl al-Asadī, married again to Rabī’ah b. Ḥizām. Fāṭimah, took him to her tribe in the region of Quḍā’ah. Zuhrah was left in Makkah because he was old enough to live by himself. He lived the rest of his youth in the Levant with the tribe of her new husband Rabī’ah. The tribe of Rabī’ah never considered Qusayy as one of them. One day, a quarrel broke out and they reproached him. He went to complain to his mother and she informed him that he was nobler than they for he was from the land of the Holy House. This inspired him to move back to Makkah. His mother told him to wait for the sacred months so he could travel with the caravans because she was worried for his safety. He was very wise and married the daughter of a powerful man of Khuzā’ah at the time, Hulayl ibn Habshiyyah. He was entrusted with the guardianship of the Ka’bah at the time. When his father in law died, he entrusted his daughter with the keys. She imparted the trust to a man called Abu Ghibshām who was a drunk. Quṣayy was able to get him to exchange the keys to him for a jug of wine. The tribe of Khuzā’ah grew fearful of him and tried to dispossess him of it but Quṣayy called upon the tribes of Quraysh who were on the outskirts of Makkah to support him. They settled around the sanctuary and they became known as Quraysh of the Hollow. They attested that he was the one most deserving of the responsibility. He used to gather them on Friday and inform them of the coming prophet. The tribe of Khuzā’ah were forced to leave Makkah. He was responsible for clothing the Ka’bah and held its keys to open and close it (sadānah/ḥijābah), and given food (rifādah) and drink (siqāyah) to the pilgrims. He also had the honour of housing the council meetings of Quraysh (Dār an-Nadwah) and holding the flag into battle (liwā’) and leading the people in battle (qiyādah). He was officially the king of Makkah. He brought his brother Zuhra, uncle Taym, Makhzūm and some other family around him. He decided to build houses around the sanctuary instead of living in tents as the people had done before. He imposed a tax on the flocks of the tribes so that they could feed the poor pilgrims who came. He built himself a house which was to be called the House of Assembly (Dār an-Nadwah). His sons were ‘Abd ad-Dar (Muṣ’ab b. ‘Umayr is from his line), ‘Abd al-Manāf, al-‘Abd and Abd al-‘Uzzā (Khādījah and Waraqah are from his line). Quṣayy preferred ‘Abd al-Dar over ‘Abd al-Manāf even though he was more capable then his brother because ‘Abd al-Dar was older. Out of filial piety for his father ‘Abd al-Manāf did not go against his father’s wishes. Quṣayy gave the responsibilities and the House of Assembly to ‘Abd ad-Dār. It was he who established the institutions in Makkah which were still in operation in the lifetime of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. It was an advanced standard of government which helped Makkah change from a semi-Bedouin town to a civilized city. Many tribes moved into Makkah in this period and the city flourished and expanded. At first, the Makkans avoided building their houses square shaped in order to keep them different from the Ka’bah. In Quṣayy’s lifetime, they relaxed these restrictions but they did not allow their buildings to be higher than the Ka’bah. It was in his lifetime that they organized the two trips in the year: in the summer to Syria and in the winter to Yemen. This provided the backbone for the city’s economy. The Quryash did not like to work with their hands unless it was for warfare. Hence many of the builders in the city were Persian or Byzantine. Makkah was the largest city in Arabia, serving as a religious and economic capital. It eclipsed other cities such as Sanai in Yemen.
 They would fill a vessel made of leather that would be placed in the court of the Kaʿbah and carry sweet water from the wells on camels before the digging of Zamzam.
 It was here that every marriage contract would take place and every decision affecting the community would be decided over here.
His name was Hakīm, ‘Urwah, Muhadhdhab, or Mughīrah. He was nicknamed Kilāb because he used to love to use hunting dogs. He has two sons Quṣayy and Zuhrah. His mother was Āminah daughter of Wahb b. ‘Abd Manāf b. Zuhrah b. Kilāb. The Prophet’s parents’ lines meet at Kilāb.
Murrah was a name for Friday in the pre-Islamic period. The word means to be strong. He had three sons Kilāb, Taym (Abū Bakr and Ṭalḥah are from this family) and Yaqaẓah (Makhzum) (Khālid b. al-Walīd and Walīd b. al-Mughīrah).
(An Arab was once asked why they call their children the worst of names like ‘dog’ and ‘wolf’ and then name their slaves the best like ‘Rizq’ (Provision) and ‘Rabāḥ’ (Profit). He replied that when they name their children the name is directed towards their enemies. As for our slaves, they are our property so we wish to give them sweet names.)
 It is also said that it comes from the verbal noun Mukālabah which means to pounce.
He was called so out of hope he would be raised above his people. The word Ka’b refers to anything that rises high. This is why the Ka’bah is called so. It can also refer to the ankle or to a piece of butter referring to its soft character. He used to protect his people and show kindness to them. They used to start their calendar from the day he passed away out of honour for him. He was the first to gather the people of Quraysh on a Friday (Yawm al-‘Arūbah) and preach to them. He would tell them to honour the holy precinct and that one day a prophet would be raised from his progeny who they must believe in and follow. He had three sons Murrah, ‘Adī (the tribe of ‘Umar b. Khattāb), Husays, and ‘Amr (the tribe of ‘Amr b. ‘Āṣ).
 Then they used to date the calendar from the date of the passing away of ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib. There were 560 years between him and the message of Islam.
 This was the name for Friday in pre-Islamic Arabia. It means adornment because the people would wear their best attire on that day. It became known as Jumu’ah in Madīnah when As’ad b. Zarārah used to lead the people in prayer before the coming of the Prophet (peace and blessings upon him). He was a deputy for the Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) amongst the Tribe of Najjār. When he died, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings upon him) placed himself a deputy over them.
His name is the diminutive of the word that means a wild bull. He had a son called Suhayl, who were also a famous Arab tribe. He had seven sons of whom was Ka’b, ‘Āmir, Sāmah and ‘Awf. Ibn Umm Makhtūm came from the lineage of ‘Āmir.
The name means to subdue. He was called so in the hope that he would overcome his enemies. He was known as Abū Taym.
He was called so in the hope that he would rule over the Arabs and so he did. He was also known as Abū Ḥārith. He was famed for his wisdom.
Fihr is a tall rock. He was called so out of the hope that he would dominate his enemies. It is said that his mother used to call him Quraysh. It is also said that this is his real name and Fihr is his nickname. This word means ‘to search out’ because he used to search out for the needs of others and take care of them. Qa/Ra/Sha means to bite. Qirsh is a shark, so Quraysh could be a diminutive of shark. The strongest opinion is that he is Quraysh and not an-Naḍr.
His name was Qays. He was nicknamed Naḍr because of his light complexion and beauty. The word means red gold. He was coined Abū Yakhalud. Imām Shāfi’ī – may Allah have mercy upon him – said that the first to be called Quraysh was Naḍr. It is related that he married his father’s wife after he passed away. However, we can not ascertain that this happened or we can say that it might have not been forbidden in the laws of the Prophets’ before. He had three sons: Mālik, Yakhlud, and aṣ-Ṣalt but only Mālik had children. His mother was Barrah who was not the wife of Kinānah. Some said that Kinānah married her after his father Khuzaymah and she produced an-Naḍr. They explain that this was not seen as something reprehensible because it may have been permissible in their religion as Allāh says:
و لا تنكحوا ما نكح آباؤكم من النساء إلا ما قد سلف(…)
“Do not marry those women who your fathers married except for what has passed…”
The reason for this exception here is so that one would not find fault in the lineage of the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings be upon him. However, this position is weak. In truth, he married her brother’s daughter Barrah who was the mother of Naḍr. Many scholars made the mistake because they bore the same name.
Means an arrow sheath. He was called so because he was protected and honoured by his people or maybe in hope that he would be one who protects his tribe or because he used to conceal the secrets his people confided in him. He was known as Abū an-Naḍr. He refused to eat alone. If he found no one to eat with, he would place a rock in front of him and throw food to it, out of his distaste to eat alone. The Arabs would travel far and wide to take from his knowledge and generosity.
إن الله اصطفى كنانة من ولد إسماعيل و اصطفى قريشا من كنانة و اصطفى من قريش بني هاشم و اصطفاني من بني هاشم
“Verily Allāh chose Kinānah from the children of Ishmael, and He chose Quraysh from the children of Kinānah and He chose the children of Hāshim from Quraysh and He chose me from the children of Hashim.”
He used to inform his people that soon would come a time when a prophet by the name of Aḥmad would come and call them to Allah and piety, generosity and good character and so they should follow him and they will increase in honour and glory and that they should not reject him and thus reject the truth.
 A tradition of Wāthilah b.al-Asqa’ related by Muslim and at-Tirmidhī
The meaning of his name comes from the plant Khazamah or Khazmah which means strength and to rectify something. Others said it comes from Khizām which is the rope in the nose of the animal. He was known as Abū Asad. He lived his life according to the pure religion of Abraham, peace be upon him, according to Ibn ʿAbbās which is related by Ibn Ḥabīb with a reliable chain of narration.
His name was ‘Amr. He was nicknamed ‘Mudrikah’ because he achieved every honour and pride that his ancestors had been known for. It is related that a rabbit ran in front of his camel and his camel ran off, and so he pursued it and caught up with it. Thus he was nicknamed Mudrikhah, which means to catch up with something. His brother ‘Āmir ran in pursuit of the rabbit and killed it and cooked it for him and his brothers, whilst their other brother ‘Umayr ran in their tent!
It was said his name was Ḥabīb. He was called Ilyās because his father had him when he was of a very old age. He was the first to dedicate a sacrifice to the Ka’bah. It was said that the Prophet’s, peace and blessings upon him, answering to the call of Hajj could be heard in his loins. He was also the first to re-erect the station of Abraham after a flood and the Ka’bah was destroyed. He used to speak out against the things his people had changed from the rites of Ishmael and he brought them back to the practice of Ishmael. He passed away on a Thursday and his wife Khandaf was so grief stricken that she refused to remain in the same land where he passed away. She wandered the land until she died. Every Thursday she would sob from sunrise to sunset.
It is related that the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings upon him, said:
لا تسبوا إلياس فإنه كان مؤمنا
“Do not insult Ilyās for he was a believer.”
 A tradition mentioned by as-Suhaylī in Rawḍ al-Unuf
His name was ‘Amr. He loved to drink sour buttermilk (Māḍir). He was known for his wisdom and was the first to practice the art of singing to the camels on their journeys. One day he fell from his camel and broke his hand and he screamed out: “My hand! My hand!” And the camels all came to him from the grazing ground. It is also related that it was one of his servants that fell and broke his hand. He was well known for his beautiful voice. No one saw him except they loved him.
It is related that the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings be upon him, said:
لا تسبوا مضر فإنه كان قد أسلم
“Do not insult Muḍar for he accepted Islam.”
 This art is encouraged. It is said that if one sings to one’s camel, one can cover a three day journey in one.
 A tradition related by Ibn Sa’d
His name means ‘little or rare’. His real name was Khaldān. He was called so because when he was born his father could see the light of the Prophet Muḥammad, peace and blessings be upon him, between his eyes. On seeing it, he became overjoyed and held a feast for the poor. When the people came to thank him for the feast, he replied’ “This is little in comparison to the rank of this child.” It was said that he was held highly by the kings and he was very slim. It was said that the word Nizār in Persian means slim. He was called so because the Persian king remarked how slim he was. It is said that he is buried just outside Madīnah in a place called Dhāt al-Jaysh.
 Dhāl is an error in pronunciation made by some.
His name means strength, weapon of war or generosity. He was called so because he fought many battles against the Jews of his time and did not return except that he was victorious. He followed the pure religion of Abraham, peace be upon him.
“I heard the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessing be upon him, say: ‘When the progeny of Ma’add b. ‘Adnān reached forty men, they stood against the army camps of Moses, peace be upon him, and plundered them, and so Moses, peace be upon him. cursed them. Then Allāh revealed to him, instructing him not to curse them because from among them the Unlettered Prophet bearing glad tidings, and from among them will be a nation upon whom there will be mercy. They will be pleased with Allāh for even the smallest of what they receive, and He will be pleased with them for the minimal acts that they do, and they will be entered into Paradise by their saying: ‘There is no deity worthy of worship but Allāh.’”
 A tradition related by Ṭabarānī
His name means ‘to reside/establish/set up’ (iqāmah) out of hope that he would be protected because the leaders of mankind and jinn gathered around him awaiting a suitable time to kill him because they knew the last prophet would come from his progeny. The people would say: “If we let this young boy live he will attain the station of men and the one shall come from his loins who will rule over all mankind.” However, God sent guardians to protect him. He followed the pure religion of Abraham, peace be upon him, and was the first to clothe the Ka’bah and it is said that he was the first to place down the markings for perimeters of the Holy Precinct. It is said that he lived in the time of Moses, peace be upon him, and some said Jesus, peace be upon him.
This ends the blessed family tree. May Allah shower abundant blessings of peace on the Prophet Muhammad and his family. Amin!